The thus obtained complex carbon-catalyst structure is particularly useful in heterogeneous catalysis, for example in low energy chemical synthesis, water treatment, soil detoxification and emission reduction. Commercial metal catalysts on carbon supports are obtained by infiltration of metal nanoparticles into porous carbon structures.
However, the affinity is low. Using the above described process for adhering the catalyst nanoparticles to carbohydrates by binding, prior to conversion of the carbohydrate starting material into the structural carbon product, an increased affinity is obtained. The following non-limiting examples are intended merely to illustrate the advantages obtained with the embodiments of the present invention. Kraft black liquor was subjected to ultrafiltration using different cut-off values to obtain fractions of varying molar mass.
Sustainable Carbon Materials From Hydrothermal Processes Titirici Maria Magdalena @tuhupersgentcomp.cf
The contents of different components in said fractions were measured see the following Table 1. Dry content The high molar mass fractions were selected for subsequent treatment due to their high carbon contents. Example 2 - production of carbon from lignin by HTC. Lignin has been found particularly suitable for use as a starting material in the present process, among others due to its high carbon content, but also due to the fact that lignin can be extracted in high yields, for example, from black liquor see the above Table 1 , where it forms a by-product.
In some pulping processes, lignin separation is even required to increase pulp production. The carbon content of the product was measured, and compared to the contents of untreated lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and crude oil. The compositions of these bio fractions cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, crude oil and the HTC product of lignin are shown in the following Table 2. HTC L The thus obtained product was analyzed and the procedure was repeated 3 times to give experiments 1, 2 and 3 to give the results of the following Table 3, using carbon black from a pyro lysis process as a reference.
The process conditions were selected to favor the formation of carbon and prevent the formation of oxygen. Example 3 - production of nanosized carbon particles from black liquor lignin using HTC. Black liquor lignin was fractionated to fractions with the cut off Rl and 20 R2 according to Table 1, Example 1, as well as Figure 1.
Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes
Rl and R2 were further processed with HTC. Kraft lignin was used as a reference material and it was precipitated from kraft black liquor according to Example 2. The number average particle size distribution was determined for the obtained products and reference material to give the results of Figure 2 and Table 4. According to the results, HTC can be used as a method to reduce the particle size of the original raw material and to produce nanosized carbon particles for example for carbon black applications.
Table 4. Mean particle size presented as differential number for kraft lignin reference and black liquor lignin fractions Rl and R2 after HTC. Ref document number : Country of ref document : CN. Country of ref document : EP. Kind code of ref document : A1.
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Kind code of ref document : A2. Effective date : The invention also concerns a structural carbon product obtained using such a process, which has well-defined physico-chemical properties, e. Description of Related Art Carbonization is the general term of the frequently used procedures for converting biomaterials into products of higher carbon content. Summary of the Invention It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved process for the conversion of biomaterials into pure carbon products.
Brief Description of the Drawings Figure 1 is a schematic image of the fractionation of hardwood kraft black liquor lignin using two different membranes GR40PP, cut off and GR60PP, cut off 20 EXAMPLES Example 1 - separation of kraft black liquor into fractions Kraft black liquor was subjected to ultrafiltration using different cut-off values to obtain fractions of varying molar mass. Table 1. Example 2 - production of carbon from lignin by HTC Lignin has been found particularly suitable for use as a starting material in the present process, among others due to its high carbon content, but also due to the fact that lignin can be extracted in high yields, for example, from black liquor see the above Table 1 , where it forms a by-product.
Table 2. Table 3. Claims 1. The process according to Claim 1, wherein the starting material is selected from materials including components having high carbon contents, such as lignins, tannins and betulin, particularly from materials having high contents of lignin, hydrolysis lignin or lignan, preferably materials obtained from side-streams of the manufacture of paper, board, biofuel or brewed products, such as pulp obtained from a pulping factory, more preferably from chemical pulp, such as black liquor, or hydrolysis lignin obtained from the manufacture of 2 nd generation bio fuels or lignan extracts from breweries.
The process according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the starting materials are extracted from wooden raw materials, preferably selected from bark, branches, needles and twigs. The process according to any preceding claim, wherein the hydrothermal treatment is selected from hydrothermal carbonization HTC and hydrothermal liquefaction HTL. The process according to any preceding claim, wherein the process conditions are selected to enable conversion of the starting materials into carbon black. The process according to any of claims 1 to 6 and 9, wherein the process conditions are selected to enable conversion of the starting materials into active carbon.
The process according to any preceding claim, which includes at least one step of grinding the reaction mixture to provide carbon particles having a further structured surface. The process according to any preceding claim, which includes at least one step of dissolving or dispersing the starting material, for example in water or an alcohol, such as ethanol, or a mixture thereof, and optionally homogenizing the obtained dispersion or colloidal solution. The process according to any preceding claim, which includes a step of ultrafiltration of the starting material to obtain a concentrated fraction having an increased carbon content.
The carbon product according to Claim 17 or 18, which includes nanoparticles of a catalyst or a mixture of catalysts on its surface. Use of the process according to any of claims 1 to 16 in manufacturing a rubber or plastic product or a pigment containing the carbon product of any of claims 17 to 19 as an additive. USA1 en. EPA4 en. CNB en. CAA1 en.
FIB en. WOA1 en. Method for obtaining stabilized lignin having a defined particle-size distribution from a lignin-containing liquid. DEA1 en.
Particulate carbon material produced from renewable raw materials and process for its preparation. We now partially understand the HTC chemical structure and formation mechanism. However the chemistry behind and the nucleation mechanism are still to be answered. I am also trying to understand the role of nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms 6 in the electrocatalytic activity of these materials. My research principle is to try many different things and, once an important phenomena or property is observed, go deeper into its fundamental understanding in order to make it even more important.
An archaeologist or a marine biologist — so still a researcher. I think research and the academic environment fits me very well. I am a free spirit; I do not like to work according to strict schedules or dress according to dress codes.
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I could not be an artist as I lack talent; therefore the perfect option for me is to be a scientist. I have many hobbies. To keep a healthy work—life balance they are far from science and the academic environment. I love photography and street art. I enjoy the clubbing culture and the electronic music scene, especially the Berlin one. I also love good books and independent films. I also like running and cycling and taking part in various related competitions.
I ran the Berlin Marathon and the next step will obviously be the London Marathon. I also love my cat called Marathon. A , , 1 , DOI: Analysis of highly cited papers favours biochemistry while polls champion Crispr, lithium-ion batteries and MOFs. Discovery offers powerful new target to treat trypanosome parasite illnesses that affect millions.
Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. Registered charity number: Site powered by Webvision. Skip to main content Skip to navigation Create your free account Registration is free, quick and easy. No comments. Magdalena Titirici talks to Anna Simpson about hydrothermal carbon and her lack of patience. S-A Wohlgemuth et al , Green Chem. No comments yet. Have your say You're not signed in. To link your comment to your profile, sign in now. Only registered users can comment on this article. Sign in Register. More News. News Inspired guesswork goes head-to-head with number crunching for Nobel predictions 25 September Analysis of highly cited papers favours biochemistry while polls champion Crispr, lithium-ion batteries and MOFs.
Research Elusive protein and key to many tropical diseases found after decades of searching 24 September Discovery offers powerful new target to treat trypanosome parasite illnesses that affect millions.
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