Perennials: The Gardeners Reference

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The English landscape garden usually included a lake, lawns set against groves of trees, and often contained shrubberies, grottoes, pavilions, bridges and follies such as mock temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape. They were often inspired by paintings of landscapes by Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin , and some were Influenced by the classic Chinese gardens of the East, [10] which had recently been described by European travelers.

Also, in the Horticultural Society was formed. Gardens of the 19th century contained plants such as the monkey puzzle or Chile pine. This is also the time when the so-called " gardenesque " style of gardens evolved.

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These gardens displayed a wide variety of flowers in a rather small space. Rock gardens increased in popularity in the 19th century. Residential gardening takes place near the home, in a space referred to as the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located on a roof , in an atrium , on a balcony , in a windowbox , on a patio or vivarium.

Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens botanical gardens or zoological gardens , amusement parks , along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and garden hotels.

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In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens. People can express their political or social views in gardens, intentionally or not.

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The lawn vs. City of Toronto", , the right to cultivate all native species, even most varieties deemed noxious or allergenic, was upheld as part of the right of free expression. Community gardening comprises a wide variety of approaches to sharing land and gardens. People often surround their house and garden with a hedge.

Common hedge plants are privet , hawthorn , beech , yew , leyland cypress , hemlock , arborvitae , barberry , box , holly , oleander , forsythia and lavender.

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The idea of open gardens without hedges may be distasteful to those who enjoy privacy. The Slow Food movement has sought in some countries to add an edible school yard and garden classrooms to schools, e. Garden sharing , where urban landowners allow gardeners to grow on their property in exchange for a share of the harvest, is associated with the desire to control the quality of one's food, and reconnect with soil and community.

In US and British usage, the production of ornamental plantings around buildings is called landscaping , landscape maintenance or grounds keeping , while international usage uses the term gardening for these same activities. Also gaining popularity is the concept of "Green Gardening" which involves growing plants using organic fertilizers and pesticides so that the gardening process — or the flowers and fruits produced thereby — doesn't adversely affect the environment or people's health in any manner.

Gardening for beauty is likely [ original research? Small-scale, subsistence agriculture called hoe-farming is largely indistinguishable from gardening. A patch of potatoes grown by a Peruvian peasant or an Irish smallholder for personal use could be described as either a garden or a farm.

Gardening for average people evolved as a separate discipline, more concerned with aesthetics, recreation and leisure , [18] under the influence of the pleasure gardens of the wealthy. In respect to its food-producing purpose, gardening is distinguished [ by whom?

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Farming occurs on a larger scale, and with the production of salable goods as a major motivation. Gardening happens on a smaller scale, primarily for pleasure and to produce goods for the gardener's own family or community. There is some overlap between the terms, particularly in that some moderate-sized vegetable growing concerns, often called market gardening , can fit in either category.

The key distinction between gardening and farming is essentially one of scale; gardening can be a hobby or an income supplement, but farming is generally understood [ by whom?

One distinction is that gardening is labor-intensive and employs very little infrastructural capital , sometimes no more than a few tools, e. By contrast, larger-scale farming often involves irrigation systems , chemical fertilizers and harvesters or at least ladders , e. However, this distinction is becoming blurred with the increasing use of power tools in even small gardens. Monty Don has speculated on an atavistic connection between present-day gardeners and pre-modern peasantry.

The term precision agriculture is sometimes used [ by whom? Gardening is effectively scaled up to feed entire villages of over people from specialized plots. A variant is the community garden which offers plots to urban dwellers; see further in allotment gardening. There is a wide range of garden ornaments and accessories available in the market for both the professional gardener and the amateur to exercise their creativity.

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These are used to add decoration or functionality, and may be made from a wide range of materials such as copper, stone, wood, bamboo, stainless steel , clay , stained glass , concrete, or iron. Examples include trellis , garden furniture , statues , outdoor fireplaces , fountains , rain chains , urns , bird baths and feeders , wind chimes , and garden lighting such as candle lanterns and oil lamps.

The use of these items can be part of the expression of a gardener's gardening personality. Garden design is considered to be an art in most cultures, distinguished from gardening, which generally means garden maintenance. Garden design can include different themes such as perennial, butterfly , wildlife , Japanese , water , tropical , or shade gardens. In Japan, Samurai and Zen monks were often required to build decorative gardens or practice related skills like flower arrangement known as ikebana.

In 18th-century Europe, country estates were refashioned by landscape gardeners into formal gardens or landscaped park lands, such as at Versailles , France, or Stowe , England. Today, landscape architects and garden designers continue to produce artistically creative designs for private garden spaces. Garden pests are generally plants , fungi , or animals frequently insects that engage in activity that the gardener considers undesirable. A pest may crowd out desirable plants, disturb soil, stunt the growth of young seedlings, steal or damage fruit, or otherwise kill plants, hamper their growth, damage their appearance, or reduce the quality of the edible or ornamental portions of the plant.

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Aphids , spider mites , slugs , snails , ants , birds , and even cats are commonly considered to be garden pests. Because gardeners may have different goals, organisms considered "garden pests" vary from gardener to gardener. Tropaeolum speciosum , for example, may be considered a desirable and ornamental garden plant, or it may be considered a pest if it seeds and starts to grow where it is not wanted.

As another example, in lawns , moss can become dominant and be impossible to eradicate. In some lawns, lichens , especially very damp lawn lichens such as Peltigera lactucfolia and P. There are many ways by which unwanted pests are removed from a garden. The techniques vary depending on the pest, the gardener's goals, and the gardener's philosophy. For example, snails may be dealt with through the use of a chemical pesticide, an organic pesticide, hand-picking, barriers, or simply growing snail-resistant plants.

Pest control is often done through the use of pesticides , which may be either organic or artificially synthesized. Pesticides may affect the ecology of a garden due to their effects on the populations of both target and non-target species. For example, unintended exposure to some neonicotinoid pesticides has been proposed as a factor in the recent decline in honey bee populations. Other means of control include the removal of infected plants, using fertilizers and biostimulants to improve the health and vigour of plants so they better resist attack, practising crop rotation to prevent pest build-up, using companion planting , [23] and practising good garden hygiene, such as disinfecting tools and clearing debris and weeds which may harbour pests.

Garden guns are smooth bore shotguns specifically made to fire. These guns are especially effective inside of barns and sheds, as the snake shot will not shoot holes in the roof or walls, or more importantly injure livestock with a ricochet. They are also used for pest control at airports , warehouses , stockyards , etc. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Practice of growing and cultivating plants. For planting a plain-text to be encrypted by an adversary, see Gardening cryptanalysis. For persons who garden, see Gardener. Main article: History of gardening. Main article: List of garden types.

Main article: Garden ornament.

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See also: Landscape architecture. Main article: Garden guns. Gardening portal Agriculture portal. The forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 4 June Frances Lincoln Publishers. The Cottage Garden. Jacqui Hurst. Dorling Kindersley. Illustrated History of Landscape Design. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Publisher: Timber Press. Click to have a closer look.

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