Metacognition: Process, Function and Use


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Defining Metacognition

Click here to download the student worksheet PDF. The chart identifies how to use the strategy, when to use the strategy, and describes what it is used for. Click here to access the Sample Strategy Evaluation Matrix. LD school has created a summary which explores the use of metacognitive strategies in mathematics.

Click here to access the LD Online website.

A powerful skill for building resilience

Click here to read an article on how metacognitive strategy instruction enhances reading comprehension. Click here to read an excerpt of the article on Metacognitive Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities. Note : the full article may be accessed by registering for a free trial membership. Leblanc, N. Fogarty, R. How to teach for metacognition. LD Online Glossary Retrieved July 10, Lerner, J. In Hawton K editor. Oxford: University Press, Coping, life meaning, and suicidal manifestations: examining gender differences.

J Clin Psychol ;57 12 Coping responses in depressed, socially maladjusted, and suicidal adolescents. Psychol Rep ;71 1 Cartwright-Hatton S, Wells A. Beliefs about worry and intrusions: The meta-cognitions questionnaire and its correlates.

Metacognitive Strategies or “Thinking About My Thinking”

J Anxiety Disord ;11 3 Tosun A, Irak M. Adaptation, validity and reliability of the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire in Turkish culture; and its relationships with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry ;19 1 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach.

Metacognition, Effective Teaching & Learning

J Pers Soc Psychol ;56 2 Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry ; Beck Depression Inventory. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford, Hisli N. The validity and reability of Beck Depression Inventory. Turkish Journal of Psychology ; An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol ;56 6 Turkish version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy ; American Psychiatry Association. Med Treatment J ; Lazarus RS, Folkman S.

Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springe, Aldwin C. NewYork: Guilford, Styles of problem solving in suicidal individuals. Suicide Life Threat Behav ;20 1 Social problem-solving deficits and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal risk in college students and psychiatric inpatients. J Clin Psychol ;54 8 Neuringer C.

Rigid thinking in suicidal individuals.


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J Consult Psychol ; Levenson M, Neuringer C. Problem-solving behavior in suicidal adolescents.

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J Consult Clin Psychol ;37 3 Cognitive characteristics of suicide attempters. J Consult Clin Psychol ;47 3 Individuals with well-developed metacognitive skills can think through a problem or approach a learning task, select appropriate strategies, and make decisions about a course of action to resolve the problem or successfully perform the task.

They often think about their own thinking processes, taking time to think about and learn from mistakes or inaccuracies North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, Moreover, individuals who demonstrate a wide variety of metacognitive skills perform better on exams and complete work more efficiently—they use the right tool for the job, and they modify learning strategies as needed, identifying blocks to learning and changing tools or strategies to ensure goal attainment. Because Metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning, it is imperative that instructors help learners develop metacognitively.

Instructors need to set tasks at an appropriate level of difficulty i. Instructors should take care not to do the thinking for learners or tell them what to do because this runs the risk of making students experts at seeking help rather than experts at thinking about and directing their own learning. McKeachie found that few college instructors explicitly teach strategies for monitoring learning.

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They assume that students have already learned these strategies in high school. But many have not and are unaware of the metacognitive process and its importance to learning. Rote memorization is the usual—and often the only—learning strategy employed by high school students when they enter college Nist, Simpson and Nist , in a review of the literature on strategic learning, emphasize that instructors need to provide explicit instruction on the use of study strategies.

The implication for ABE programs is that it is likely that ABE learners need explicit instruction in both cognitive and metacognitive strategies. They need to know that they have choices about the strategies they can employ in different contexts, and they need to monitor their use of and success with these strategies.


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Instructors can encourage ABE learners to become more strategic thinkers by helping them focus on the ways they process information. Self-questioning, reflective journal writing, and discussing their thought processes with other learners are among the ways that teachers can encourage learners to examine and develop their metacognitive processes.

Fogarty suggests that Metacognition is a process that spans three distinct phases, and that, to be successful thinkers, students must do the following:. Instructors can model the application of questions, and they can prompt learners to ask themselves questions during each phase. They can incorporate into lesson plans opportunities for learners to practice using these questions during learning tasks, as illustratetd in the following examples:.

Rather than viewing reading, writing, science, social studies, and math only as subjects or content to be taught, instructors can see them as opportunities for learners to reflect on their learning processes. Examples follow for each content area:.

Metacognition - Process, Function and Use | Patrick Chambres | Springer

The goal of teaching metacognitive strategies is to help learners become comfortable with these strategies so that they employ them automatically to learning tasks, focusing their attention, deriving meaning, and making adjustments if something goes wrong. They do not think about these skills while performing them but, if asked what they are doing, they can usually accurately describe their metacognitive processes. Biemiller, A.

The nature and nurture of the self-directed learner. Educational Leadership, 50, 75— Borkowski, J. Intelligence, 11, 61— Flavell, J. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, — Metacognitive aspects of problem solving.

Resnick Ed. Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. Kluwe Eds. Fogarty, R. How to teach for metacognition. Halpern, D.

Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use Metacognition: Process, Function and Use
Metacognition: Process, Function and Use

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