In one study, power grids were compared to the dolphin social network. The intercommunications that enable them to survive are highly complex. In percolation theory , random fuse networks have been studied. The current density might be too low in some areas, and too strong in others. The analysis can therefore be used to smooth out potential problems in the network. For instance, high-speed computer analysis can predict blown fuses and correct for them, or analyze patterns that might lead to a power outage.
This typically involves setting up a lab with the smart grid devices, applications etc. Neural networks have been considered for power grid management as well. Electric power systems can be classified in multiple different ways: non-linear, dynamic, discrete, or random. Artificial Neural Networks ANNs attempt to solve the most difficult of these problems, the non-linear problems.
One application of ANNs is in demand forecasting. In order for grids to operate economically and reliably, demand forecasting is essential, because it is used to predict the amount of power that will be consumed by the load.
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This is dependent on weather conditions, type of day, random events, incidents, etc. For non-linear loads though, the load profile isn't smooth and as predictable, resulting in higher uncertainty and less accuracy using the traditional Artificial Intelligence models. Some factors that ANNs consider when developing these sort of models: classification of load profiles of different customer classes based on the consumption of electricity, increased responsiveness of demand to predict real time electricity prices as compared to conventional grids, the need to input past demand as different components, such as peak load, base load, valley load, average load, etc.
An example of the last case would be given the type of day, whether its weekday or weekend, that wouldn't have much of an effect on Hospital grids, but it'd be a big factor in resident housing grids' load profile.
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As wind power continues to gain popularity, it becomes a necessary ingredient in realistic power grid studies. Off-line storage, wind variability, supply, demand, pricing, and other factors can be modelled as a mathematical game. Here the goal is to develop a winning strategy. Markov processes have been used to model and study this type of system. All of these methods are, in one way or another, maximum entropy methods , which is an active area of research. Continuing along similar lines today, modern wireless network research often considers the problem of network congestion ,  and many algorithms are being proposed to minimize it, including game theory,  innovative combinations of FDMA , TDMA , and others.
Given the success of the smart grids in the U.
With the segments set to benefit the most will be smart metering hardware sellers and makers of software used to transmit and organize the massive amount of data collected by meters. Growing need to digitalize the power sector driven by ageing electrical grid infrastructure will stimulate the global market size. The industry is primarily driven by favorable government regulations and mandates along with rising share of renewables in the global energy mix.
The total cost of replacing it with a smart grid is estimated to be more than USD 4 trillion. If smart grids are deployed fully across the US, the country expects to save USD billion annually. As customers can choose their electricity suppliers, depending on their different tariff methods, the focus of transportation costs will be increased. Reduction of maintenance and replacements costs will stimulate more advanced control.
A smart grid precisely limits electrical power down to the residential level, network small-scale distributed energy generation and storage devices, communicate information on operating status and needs, collect information on prices and grid conditions, and move the grid beyond central control to a collaborative network. A United States Department of Energy study calculated that internal modernization of US grids with smart grid capabilities would save between 46 and billion dollars over the next 20 years if implemented within a few years of the study.
One important question is whether consumers will act in response to market signals. The U. Department of Energy DOE as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Smart Grid Investment Grant and Demonstrations Program funded special consumer behavior studies to examine the acceptance, retention, and response of consumers subscribed to time-based utility rate programs that involve advanced metering infrastructure and customer systems such as in-home displays and programmable communicating thermostats.
Another concern is that the cost of telecommunications to fully support smart grids may be prohibitive. A less expensive communication mechanism is proposed [ citation needed ] using a form of " dynamic demand management " where devices shave peaks by shifting their loads in reaction to grid frequency. Grid frequency could be used to communicate load information without the need of an additional telecommunication network, but it would not support economic bargaining or quantification of contributions.
Although there are specific and proven smart grid technologies in use, smart grid is an aggregate term for a set of related technologies on which a specification is generally agreed, rather than a name for a specific technology. Some of the benefits of such a modernized electricity network include the ability to reduce power consumption at the consumer side during peak hours, called demand side management ; enabling grid connection of distributed generation power with photovoltaic arrays , small wind turbines , micro hydro , or even combined heat power generators in buildings ; incorporating grid energy storage for distributed generation load balancing; and eliminating or containing failures such as widespread power grid cascading failures.
The increased efficiency and reliability of the smart grid is expected to save consumers money and help reduce CO 2 emissions. Most opposition and concerns have centered on smart meters and the items such as remote control, remote disconnect, and variable rate pricing enabled by them.
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Where opposition to smart meters is encountered, they are often marketed as "smart grid" which connects smart grid to smart meters in the eyes of opponents. Specific points of opposition or concern include:. While modernization of electrical grids into smart grids allows for optimization of everyday processes, a smart grid, being online, can be vulnerable to cyberattacks. These decisions are sent back to the field, where existing equipment execute them. They can also launch integrity attacks which corrupt information being transmitted along the system as well as desynchronization attacks which affect when such information is delivered to the appropriate location.
Because a smart grid has a large number of access points, like smart meters, defending all of its weak points can prove difficult. Concerns chiefly center around the communications technology at the heart of the smart grid. Designed to allow real-time contact between utilities and meters in customers' homes and businesses, there is a risk that these capabilities could be exploited for criminal or even terrorist actions.
This is undoubtedly a massive boon for energy providers, but also raises some significant security issues.
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Electricity theft is a concern in the U. The damage from a well-executed, sizable cyberattack could be extensive and long-lasting. One incapacitated substation could take from nine days to over a year to repair, depending on the nature of the attack. It can also cause an hours-long outage in a small radius. It could have an immediate effect on transportation infrastructure, as traffic lights and other routing mechanisms as well as ventilation equipment for underground roadways is reliant on electricity.
The December Ukraine power grid cyberattack , the first recorded of its kind, disrupted services to nearly a quarter of a million people by bringing substations offline. Cyber intrusions can be used as portions of a larger offensive, military or otherwise. According to the U. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings, and Emergency Management, the electric grid has already seen a sizable number of cyber intrusions, with two in every five aiming to incapacitate it. Department of Energy has prioritized research and development to decrease the electric grid's vulnerability to cyberattacks, citing them as an "imminent danger" in its Quadrennial Energy Review.
Some experts argue that the first step to increasing the cyber defenses of the smart electric grid is completing a comprehensive risk analysis of existing infrastructure, including research of software, hardware, and communication processes. Additionally, as intrusions themselves can provide valuable information, it could be useful to analyze system logs and other records of their nature and timing. Common weaknesses already identified using such methods by the Department of Homeland Security include poor code quality, improper authentication, and weak firewall rules.
Once this step is completed, some suggest that it makes sense to then complete an analysis of the potential consequences of the aforementioned failures or shortcomings. This includes both immediate consequences as well as second- and third-order cascading impacts on parallel systems. Finally, risk mitigation solutions, which may include simple remediation of infrastructure inadequacies or novel strategies, can be deployed to address the situation. Some such measures include recoding of control system algorithms to make them more able to resist and recover from cyberattacks or preventative techniques that allow more efficient detection of unusual or unauthorized changes to data.
Strategies to account for human error which can compromise systems include educating those who work in the field to be wary of strange USB drives, which can introduce malware if inserted, even if just to check their contents. Other solutions include utilizing transmission substations, constrained SCADA networks, policy based data sharing, and attestation for constrained smart meters.
Transmission substations utilize one-time signature authentication technologies and one-way hash chain constructs. These constraints have since been remedied with the creation of a fast-signing and verification technology and buffering-free data processing. This involves applying a Hash-Based Message Authentication Code to byte streams, converting the random-error detection available on legacy systems to a mechanism that guarantees data authenticity. Policy-based data sharing utilizes GPS-clock-synchronized-fine-grain power grid measurements to provide increased grid stability and reliability.
It does this through synchro-phasor requirements that are gathered by PMUs.
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Attestation for constrained smart meters faces a slightly different challenge, however. To combat this problem, an architecture for constrained smart networks has been created and implemented at a low level in the embedded system. Before a utility installs an advanced metering system, or any type of smart system , it must make a business case for the investment. Some components, like the power system stabilizers PSS [ clarification needed ] installed on generators are very expensive, require complex integration in the grid's control system, are needed only during emergencies, and are only effective if other suppliers on the network have them.
Without any incentive to install them, power suppliers don't. Because of this, a utility must typically identify several applications that will use the same communications infrastructure — for example, reading a meter, monitoring power quality, remote connection and disconnection of customers, enabling demand response, etc.
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