C++ pocket reference


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For example:. This can be done using separate operators as in Simula.


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References typically appear on the skin of an object, and pointers on the inside. NOTE: Please do not email us saying the above works on your particular version of your particular compiler. In fact, your particular version of your particular compiler may, or may not, generate code that you think makes sense if you do the above. That can cause a compiler to optimize away the following test:. As stated above, this is just an example of the sort of thing your compiler might do based on the language rule that says a reference must refer to a valid object.

Do not limit your thinking to the above example; the message of this FAQ is that the compiler is not required to do something sensible if you violate the rules. The term handle is used to mean any technique that lets you get to another object — a generalized pseudo-pointer. The term is intentionally ambiguous and vague. Ambiguity is actually an asset in certain cases. For example, during early design you might not be ready to commit to a specific representation for the handles. The handle might be a string that can be used as a key in some well-known lookup table e. Novices often think in terms of pointers, but in reality there are downside risks to using raw pointers.

What if the Fred object needs to temporarily get serialized on disk? Most of the time we add more layers of indirection to manage situations like these. Or whatever. Why would you want to change an argument? Well, often we have to, but often we have an alternative: produce a new value.

For a reader, incr2 is likely easier to understand.

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That is, incr1 is more likely to lead to mistakes and errors. What if you do want to change the argument, should you use a pointer or use a reference?

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One style is to use a pointer when you want to modify an object because in some contexts that makes it easier to spot that a modification is possible. Also, Stroustrup chose this to follow Simula usage, rather than the later Smalltalk use of self. Tweets by isocpp.

References What is a reference? An alias an alternate name for an object. What happens if you assign to a reference? You change the state of the referent the referent is the object to which the reference refers. What happens if you return a reference? The function call can appear on the left hand side of an assignment operator.

It chains these method calls, which is why this is called method chaining. As a result, this reference is devoted almost exclusively to presenting the language itself. Constant width This style is used for code, commands, keywords, and names for types, variables, functions, and classes. Constant width italic This style is used for items that you need to replace. Thanks also to Uwe Schnitker, Danny Kalev, and Ron Passe- rini for taking the time to read and comment on an early draft of this book. In fact, it is a rich language that extends C with some grand additions.

These include support for object-oriented programming, generic programming using templates, namespaces, inline functions, operator and function over- loading, better facilities for memory management, refer- ences, safer forms of casting, runtime type information, exception handling, and an extended standard library. Together, these files define exactly one starting point, and perhaps vari- ous points at which to end.

At the same time, the preprocessor can also perform various other operations through the use of prepro- cessor directives. A source file after preprocessing has been completed is called a translation unit. Its return type is int.

The name of the executable is stored in argv[0], and may or may not be prefixed by its path. The value of argv[argc] is 0. An initial deposit is made into the account using an amount specified on the command line when the program is started.

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The value you return is passed back to the operating system and becomes the return value for the executable. If no return is present in main, an implicit return of 0 takes places after fall- ing through the body of main. Header Files Header files contain source code to be included in multiple files. They usually have a.

C++ Pocket Reference

Anything to be included in multiple places belongs in a header file. Program Structure 5 www. For example, Account is defined in the header file Account. Of course, header files are used for other purposes, and not all class definitions need to be in header files e. Because header files are often included by other headers themselves, care must be taken not to include the same file more than once, which can lead to compilation errors. To avoid this, it is conventional to wrap the contents of header files with the preprocessor directives ifndef, define, and endif, as done in the previous example.

The tactic of wrapping a header file forces the preprocessor to test an identifier. As an example, the contents of Account. During compilation, the compiler typi- cally translates source files into object files, which often have a. Object files are joined by the linker to produce a final executable or library. Often you create one source file for each major class you implement. For example, the implementation of Account is in Account.

Of course, there is no require- ment about this; source files often contain more than just the implementation of a single class. Each direc- tive begins with a pound sign as the first character that is not whitespace on a line. The define directive can accept arguments for macro substi- tution in the text. In order to avoid unexpected problems with operator prece- dence, parameters should be fully parenthesized in the text, as shown above. The ifdef directive causes the preprocessor to include different code based on whether or not an identifier is defined.

These cause the preproces- sor to include or exclude code based on whether an expression is true. You enclose standard header files with angle brackets, and user-defined header files with quotes. The paths searched depend on the system.

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For example: line A filename optionally can be specified in double quotes after the line number. For example: line "NewName. The pragma directive allows you to control these operations by specifying the directive along with any parameters in a form that the directive requires. The direc- tive requires one parameter: the message to display. This is enclosed in parentheses and quoted.

Program Structure 11 www. Fundamental Types The type for an identifier determines what you are allowed to do with it. You associate a type with an identifier when you declare it. Inte- gral and floating-point types are collectively called arithmetic types. The bool type is used for values of truth.

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For example: bool flag; The typical size of a bool is one byte. By convention, false is defined as 0; any other value is considered true. Character types may be specified either as signed or unsigned and are sometimes used simply to store small integers. If neither signed nor unsigned is specified, characters are usually signed by default, but this is left up to the compiler. The size of a char is one byte.

The size of a byte technically is implementation- defined, but it is rarely anything but eight bits.

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