Antibiotic Essentials 2015

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The tested bacteria were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.

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All bacterial isolates were obtained from mid stream urine specimens collected from patients at King Fahad General Hospital, Saudi Arabia and identified and processed according to standard guidelines [20]. Pants, lemongrass stalk and leaves Cymbopogon citratus , lantana leaves Lantana camara and wild olive leaves Olea europaea were collected during May , from various areas of Al Baha region, Saudi Arabia.

Al Andalus University For Medical Sciences - Scientific References - Antibiotic Essentials

Agar well diffusion assay was used to detect the antibacterial activities of the prepared extracts [21] and antibiotics. Louis, Missouri, USA were used. Few microbial colonies were collected in sterile nutrient broth and adjusted to the turbidity of the standard of 0. Each Mueller Hinton agar Oxoid plate was inoculated with 1.

Agar wells were done using sterile cork borer 0. Mean diameter of inhibition zone of three replicated plates was determined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs of plant extract, antibiotics or the mixture of both for all tested bacteria were determined in 96 well ELISA trays by the methods described by Chand et al. Fractional inhibitory concentration FIC is the lowest concentrations of the extract and the antibiotics in combination giving no detectable bacterial growth after incubation.

FIC index values were calculated using the formula:. Lemongrass Oymbopogon citrates , lantana Lantana camara , and wild olive Olea europaea were belonging to families Gramineae, Verbenaceae and Oleaceae, respectively Table 1.

Antibiotic Essentials

The leaves of lantana and wild olive and shoot system of lemongrass were collected, identified, extracted with either hot water or organic solvents methanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to investigate their antibacterial activities against E. The methanolic extracts of lantana, lemongrass and wild olive showed the highest activities against E. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the methanolic extract of the three tested plants were determined against the tested bacteria, Table 3.

Table 1. The studied medicinal plants to detect their antibacterial activities and the used parts. Table 2. Antibacterial activities of the aqueous and organic extracts of three tested plant against E. Table 3. The antibacterial activities diameter of the inhibition zone, mm of the methanolic extract of Lantana, lemongrass and olive against different pathogenic bacteria and compared to Ampicillin positive control. The tested bacteria were K. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded for the methanolic extract of lemongrass, followed by lantana and finally olive leave extract, against all tested bacteria, E.

The tested bacteria differed with regard to their susceptibility to the plant extracts. Lemon grass methanolic extract was the most active extract for inhibition of the Gram negative E. The effect of lantana leave extract was also on Gram negative bacteria especially E.

Minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs of the methanolic extract of lemongrass and some used antibiotics, Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol were determined using fluorescein diacetate method Table 4. Synergistic effect of the methanolic extract of lemongrass with the previous antibiotics against the tested clinical bacterial isolates was determined Table 5 and the Fractional inhibitory concentrations FIC of different combinations of lemongrass methanolic extract and some selected antibiotics were determined Table 6.

The interaction between the tested plant extract and the tested antibiotics was either synergistic or additive effects and no antagonistic effect was recorded. In conclusion, methanolic extract of lemongrass singly or in combination with some antibiotics can be used to treat urinary tract infections with different pathogenic bacteria.

Table 4. Table 5. Table 6.

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Fractional inhibitory concentrations index of combination of the methanol extract of lemon grass and some antibiotics. S: synergistic effect, A: additive, Eff. The resistance of bacterial pathogensto ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole was increased and became major therapeutic problems. Multidrug-resistant bacteria isolates are widely distributed in the hospitals through patient contacts and are increasingly being isolated from community-acquired infections [2] [27] [28] [29].

In normal genitourinary tracts, the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and occasionally Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram-positive bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S.

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In hospitalized patients, E. Many studies were carried out to extract and characterize plant products that inhibit the most pathogenic bacteria which are difficult to be effectively treateddue to antibiotics limitation and availability [14] [31]. Inhibition of bacterial growth without harming the host cells represent the qualities required for safe and potent therapeutic agent. The plants lemongrass, lantana and wild olive were used traditionally in folkloric medicine in Saudi Arabia for their therapeutic activity in treating different pathogens and diseases [32] [33].

Lemongrass is a perennial aromatic medicinal grass mainly found in Najd, in the northern and eastern parts and commonly used as an infusion or tea for kidney remedy and fevers [32]. Aqueous and organic solvents of lemongrass, lantana and wild olive were compared. Methanol significantly extracts the active ingredient of the plants and was the most active in inhibition of E.

Similarly, the methanolic extract of Olae showed antibacterial activity similar to that of the antibiotic amoxicillin against P. The antimicrobial effect of any extract depends on the used method for extraction, the used solvents and the used plant. The methanolic extract of lemongrass showed excellent antibacterial activities against all the tested bacteria with bacterial index of It was reported that the extract of lemongrass was effective against some bacteria including Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia [36] [37].

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The differences in the antibacterial effects of the three tested plant extracts may due to the qualities and quantities of active compounds in the extract. The extract of lemongrass was among the most significant active and nontoxic natural extracts due to free and bound flavonoid fractions and considered an important antimicrobial agent for many kinds of infections [11] [38]. The presence of the major volatile compounds nerol, geranial and geraniol in lemongrass extract was confirmed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and all the tested pathogens are variably susceptible to these compounds [39].


The results of Al Yousef [40] showed that Lemongrass has a fungitoxic effect and cause a reduction in fungal viability and spore germination, loss of pigmentation and disrupted conidiospore structure, supporting a possible role of infection control and the use as antifungal agents.

Promising antifungal activity of olive leaves against some plant pathogens was due to the presence of phenolic compounds [41]. Broth micro-dilution technique was used to determine theantiacterial activities and the same method was used for the antibiotic griseofulvin [42]. The calculated minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs for lemongrass were greater than that obtained for Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol. The most prominent andsynergistic interaction was observed between lemongrass and Amoxicillin Amx against E.

The combination of Ampicillin and fresh garlic extract showed synergistic interaction for different S. Further studies are needed for isolation, separation and identification of the active materials to be appliedas alternative drug for treatment of urinary system infections. The phenolics and polyphenols, essential oils; alkaloids; lectins and polypeptides are the most useful phytochemicals act as antimicrobial compounds. Their mechanisms of action vary according to their structure Aly et al. Very few studies confirm the viability of some plant extracts as antibiotics on urinary tract infections bacteria. In this study we supported the promising use of plant extract especially crude extracts of lemongrass, singly or in combination with some commonly used antibiotics.

Similar combinations are usually used by the local people to treat bacterial infections associated with many diseases. Moreover, from our results, we suggest that lemon grass could be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs, especially against urinary tract infections caused by bacteria. In addition, more investigations are needed to identify potential medical uses of more traditional and herbal plants against different kinds of infections. Journals by Subject.

Journals by Title. Author s Samah Noor.

Antibiotic Essentials 2010

These include:. Eucalyptus oil may combat a wide range of bacteria. This makes it a good option when a person is unsure which type of bacteria is causing the infection. A study identified compounds in eucalyptus oil that may explain its antibacterial properties. The researchers found that eucalyptus may kill or slow the growth of E. Cumin oil may help to fight E. Another study from compared the effects of cumin oil to those of chamomile and onion oils. Cumin oil killed the most bacteria. Cumin oil became even more effective when used in combination with some antibiotics, suggesting that it may be a complementary treatment.

The same study found that coriander oil was best able to kill a combination of S. Coriander oil also fought bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Like cumin oil, coriander oil was more effective when paired with antibiotics. The right way to use an essential oil depends on the type and concentration of the oil and an individual's health. Consult a doctor or expert in essential oils before beginning home treatment for a UTI. Do not apply essential oils directly to the vagina, penis, urethra, or any exposed skin.

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They can irritate the skin and cause an intense burning sensation. When applied topically, essential oils must be diluted in a carrier oil. The usual recipe is 3 to 5 drops of essential oil per 1 ounce of carrier oil. Carrier oils are nontoxic. Warmed coconut oil is a popular choice. However, a person may have an allergic reaction to carrier oils, especially those derived from nuts. Diluted essential oils can be safely used in a warm compress on skin near the affected area. Also, adding a few drops of diluted oils to a bath may promote relaxation and provide temporary relief from pain.

Anyone concerned about the effects of oils on the skin should consider aromatherapy, as essential oils have fewer side effects when inhaled. It is best to use small amounts of high-quality essential oils diluted in a carrier oil. Children are more vulnerable to negative side effects associated with essential oils. Use the oils on younger people only when following a doctor's advice.

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