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- Neural Communication and Control. Satellite Symposium of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Science, Debrecen, Hungary, 1980.
Tapley, L. Mass torture in America: Notes from the supermax prisons. Toch, H. Coping: Maladaptation in Prisons. New Brunswick, Mosaic of Despair: Human Breakdowns in Prison. Acting Out: Maladaptive Behavior in Confinement. Violence in prison: Revisited. Our Disqus commenting system requires Internet Explorer 8 or newer. Also works with Firefox, Safari, Chrome, and Opera.
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Rationale for Ending Administrative Segregation 1. Individuals with no prior history of mental illness who can develop paranoid psychosis requiring medical treatment after prolonged solitary confinement Haney, ; Guenther, 3. Printable Version. Bishop's Corner. Diocesan News. Featured Authors. Puzzle Answers.
Acting Out: Maladaptive Behavior in Confinement / Edition 1
Galen extended these ideas and developed a strong and influential school of thought within the biological tradition that extended well into the 18th century. Medical: Kendra Cherry states: "The medical approach to abnormal psychology focuses on the biological causes on mental illness. This perspective emphasizes understanding the underlying cause of disorders, which might include genetic inheritance, related physical disorders, infections and chemical imbalances.
Medical treatments are often pharmacological in nature, although medication is often used in conjunction with some other type of psychotherapy. According to Sigmund Freud's structural model , the Id, Ego and Superego are three theoretical constructs that define the way an individual interacts with the external world as well as responding to internal forces. The Id represents the instinctual drives of an individual that remain unconscious; the superego represents a person's conscience and their internalization of societal norms and morality; and finally the ego serves to realistically integrate the drives of the id with the prohibitions of the super-ego.
Lack of development in the Superego, or an incoherently developed Superego within an individual, will result in thoughts and actions that are irrational and abnormal, contrary to the norms and beliefs of society. Irrational beliefs that are driven by unconscious fears, can result in abnormal behavior.
Rational emotive therapy helps to drive irrational and maladaptive beliefs out of one's mind. The term sociocultural refers to the various circles of influence on the individual ranging from close friends and family to the institutions and policies of a country or the world as a whole. Discriminations, whether based on social class, income, race, and ethnicity, or gender, can influence the development of abnormal behaviour.
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The number of different theoretical perspectives in the field of psychological abnormality has made it difficult to properly explain psychopathology. The attempt to explain all mental disorders with the same theory leads to reductionism explaining a disorder or other complex phenomena using only a single idea or perspective. Explaining mental disorders with a combination of theoretical perspectives is known as multiple causality. The diathesis—stress model  emphasizes the importance of applying multiple causality to psychopathology by stressing that disorders are caused by both precipitating causes and predisposing causes.
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A precipitating cause is an immediate trigger that instigates a person's action or behavior. A predisposing cause is an underlying factor that interacts with the immediate factors to result in a disorder. Both causes play a key role in the development of a psychological disorder. The standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The current version of the book is known as DSM It lists a set of disorders and provides detailed descriptions on what constitutes a disorder such as Major Depressive Disorder or anxiety disorder.
It also gives general descriptions of how frequently the disorder occurs in the general population, whether it is more common in males or females and other such facts. The DSM-5 identifies three key elements that must be present to constitute a mental disorder. These elements include:. The diagnostic process uses five dimensions, each of which is identified as an "axis", to ascertain symptoms and overall functioning of the individual. It is important to note that the DSM-5 no longer uses this axis system.
These axes are as follows:. The major international nosologic system for the classification of mental disorders can be found in the most recent version of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision ICD Chapter five covers some mental and behavioral disorders. Below are the main categories of disorders:.
Psychologists may use different perspectives to try to get better understanding on abnormal psychology. Some of them may just concentrate on a single perspective. But the professionals prefer to combine two or three perspectives together in order to get significant information for better treatments.
Psychoanalytic theory is heavily based on the theory of the neurologist Sigmund Freud. These ideas often represented repressed emotions and memories from a patient's childhood. According to psychoanalytic theory, these repressions cause the disturbances that people experience in their daily lives and by finding the source of these disturbances, one should be able to eliminate the disturbance itself. This is accomplished by a variety of methods, with some popular ones being free association , hypnosis , and insight.
The goal of these methods is to induce a catharsis or emotional release in the patient which should indicate that the source of the problem has been tapped and it can then be helped. Freud's psychosexual stages also played a key role in this form of therapy; as he would often believe that problems the patient was experiencing were due to them becoming stuck or " fixated " in a particular stage.
Dreams also played a major role in this form of therapy as Freud viewed dreams as a way to gain insight into the unconscious mind. Patients were often asked to keep dream journals and to record their dreams to bring in for discussion during the next therapy session. There are many potential problems associated with this style of therapy, including resistance to the repressed memory or feeling, and negative transference onto the therapist. Psychoanalysis was carried on by many after Freud including his daughter Ana Freud and Jacques Lacan.
These and many others have gone on to elaborate on Freud's original theory and to add their own take on defense mechanisms or dream analysis. Behavior therapy relies on the principles of behaviorism , such as involving classical and operant conditioning.
Behaviorism arose in the early 20th century due to the work of psychologists such as James Watson and B. Behaviorism states that all behaviors humans do is because of a stimulus and reinforcement. While this reinforcement is normally for good behavior, it can also occur for maladaptive behavior. In this therapeutic view, the patients maladaptive behavior has been reinforced which will cause the maladaptive behavior to be repeated. The goal of the therapy is to reinforce less maladaptive behaviors so that with time these adaptive behaviors will become the primary ones in the patient.
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